Developed in October and November 1941 at the Construction Bureau of the Gorky Automobile Plant under the supervision of N. A. Astrov. The vehicle came into service in January 1942, and it was mass-produced until October 1943, with a total of 8231 vehicles manufactured. Some vehicles were used until the end of the war.
Time for the successive autoreloading of each shell into the magazine.
The improved system allows the time to be decreased for autoreloading the next shell upon firing the loaded shell when the corresponding indicator is displayed
Characteristics are specified for Siege mode.
The technical characteristics are displayed for the charged turbine mode.
Characteristics are specified for Rapid mode.
Reload time of the first and second guns on double-barreled vehicles.
Characteristics are specified for vehicles with crews trained to 100%.